Anatomy of Foot and Ankle

Posted on 8:13 PM by KPOPUPDATE

Tibial Tuberosity:
 Important for tendons and a useful surface landmark.

Head of Fibula:
Easily palpated because of the subcutaneous on the posterolateral aspect of the knee.
Division of the common peroneal nerve occurs here.

Lateral Malleolus:
Medial Malleolus:
Styloid Process:
can be palpated in the middle of the lateral border of the foot.

Ankle Joint:
Felt between the tendons as a depression at level 1.5cm superior to the tip of the medial malleolus.

Visible/palpable. Anteroinferior to the medial malleolus.

Arterial Supply

Anterior tibial Artery: Supplies the anterior compartment muscles of the leg.
Posterior tibial artery: supplies the posterior compartment muscles of the leg.
Peroneal artery: supplies the lateral compartment muscles of the leg.

The femoral artery becomes the popliteal artery divides into posterior, anterior tibial and peroneal arteries.

Pedal Pulses:
Dorsalis Pedis Pulse: 1 finger lateral to the exntesor hallucis longus.
Posterior tibial pulse: between medial malleolus and the cancaneal tendon.

Venous Supply:
Nerve Supply:
Tibial Nerve - supplies posterior compartment muscles.
Deep peroneal Nerve - supplies anterior compartment muscles.
Superficial peroneal Nerve - innervates lateral compartment muscles.
Tibial Nerve bifurcates at the level of the medial malleolus.


Anterior Group Muscles:

Actions: Dorsiflexes foot (tibialis anterior also inverts, Peroneus tertius also everts, Extensor digitorum longus & Extensor hallucis longus extends the toes)
Blood Supply: Anterior tibialis Artery
Innervation: Deep peroneal Nerve

Lateral Group:

Actions: Everts foot (weak plantarflexion)
Blood Supply; Peroneal Artery
Nerve Innervation: Superficial peroneal Nerve.

Posterior Group:
Actions: Plantarflex (weak inversion) foot.
Arteries: Post tibial Artery
Nerve: tibial nerve.
The posterios muscles include the achilies (gastric and soleus), superficial (gastric and soleus), deep (flexor hallucis digitorum/tibialis posterior), deltoid ligament (Connects tibia, calcaneus and talus)

Medial Ligaments:
Medial/deltoid ligament is strong, it attaches to the medial malleolus and base to the tarsus. Divided into 4 parts: tibionavicular, tibiocalcaneal, posterior tibiotalar, anterior tibiotalar. 

Lateral Ligaments:
3 Ligaments that attach lateral malleolus to the tarsus:
Anterior talofibular, posterior talofibular and calcaneofibular.

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